Theory of kaplan turbine hydropower plant this section will give a brief presentation of the main components of a kaplan turbine hydropower plant. In this project we discussed the fabrication of mini kaplan turbine parts and problems arise during the installation of turbine. Nt where t is the torque in nm and n is the speed of rotation in revs diagram power. Actuation test equipment index testing kaplan turbines. The well proven trash rack cleaner and the comprehensibly constructed and reliable turbine. First, a theoretical design was performed for determining the main characteristics where it showed an efficiency of 94%. Pt6a hot section inspection hsi originator of the guaranteed zero grind the prime turbines difference. The kaplan is of the propeller type, similar to an airplane propeller. Design and construction of mini hydropower plant with. The degree of efficiency is very high with more than 95 %.
What is the differences between pelton turbine and kaplan. Tcfd is fully automated, it can run the whole workflow by a single command. Little structural alteration work is usually needed and the annual yield can generally be increased substantially. In the overall assessment of a low head project, the application of bulbpit turbines results in higher annual energy and lower relative construction costs. From the water inlet to resulting generation of power, the plant is divided into the subsystems. Hydropower turbines are in two types as impulse and reaction where kaplan turbine is a reaction type which was invented in 19. In a hydro power plant the potential energy of water is converted into electricity through the hydro turbine and the generator. The saxo turbine an interesting selection for reliable and e. Zeco supplies kaplan turbines both in vertical or horizontal solution, directly connected to the generator shaft or through the use of belts or gearbox coupling. Possible turbine types for low head application axial axial type turbines heads approx.
Some features of the low head kaplan turbine are the following turbine runner diameter d 1. The relationship between the costs of kaplan type turbines c k and a flow rate q in m 3 s indicated two different bands. Design and analysis of a kaplan turbine runner wheel avestia. Kaplan turbine its components, working and application. It was developed in 19 by the austrian professor viktor kaplan.
Kaplan turbine is a low headturbine and used for heads ofless than 80 meters. A kaplan turbine is basically a propeller with adjustable blades inside a tube. Mat hydro provide high machine efficiency with cost effective solution to our customers. Kaplan turbine are best suited for large flow and low head applications. In this work, the critical areas of the low pressure. A state space method for the design of turbine governors in hydro power plants with kaplan turbines is presented. Prime turbines pregrinds compressor turbine tip clearances to your exact specifications, resulting in zero grind, onwing for no extra charge.
Kaplan turbine it is an axial flow reaction turbine. Although there are some disadvantages of the kaplan turbine and those are. The kaplan turbine is a propellertype water turbine which has adjustable blades. Verticalshaft kaplan turbines hsi hydro engineering gmbh. Pdf fabrication and installation of mini kaplan turbine.
Horizontal kaplan bulb turbines hsi hydro engineering gmbh. Reaction turbine blading and conditions figure 3 shows, at the top. Kaplantype hydraulic turbine in which the positions of the runner blades and the wicket gates are adjustable for load change with sustained efficiency, it is a purely axial flow turbine with a vertical shaft disposition. The kaplan turbine is an inward flow reaction turbine, which means that the working fluid changes pressure as it moves through the turbine. Classic solution for the exploitation of high water volumes and low heads, kaplan turbines benefit of high efficiency even with wide flow rate range, thanks to the runner and wicket gate regulation system. Kaplan turbine the kaplan turbine is a greatdevelopment of early 19thcentury.
The hydraulic power of the site and the power generated. The inlet guidevanes can be opened and closed to regulate the amount of flow that can pass through the turbine. Kaplan turbine works on the principle of axial flow reaction. The kaplan turbine is a propeller type water turbine with 4 to 7 adjustable blades. Tcfd is mainly focused on supporting the engineers in their real value added work. Which was designed and developed by the australian engineer viktor kaplan. Kaplan turbine the kaplan turbine is a great development of early 20th century. Development of the kaplan turbine digitala modeller. A kaplan turbine is a propeller with adjustable blades inside a tube. Unesco eolss sample chapters thermal power plants vol.
The kaplan turbine has an outstanding reputation for its high specific flow capacity. Figure 7 below shows an hsi horizontalaxis kaplan turbine with a 1 metre diameter rotor. The kaplan turbine i s a reaction type which is suitable for low pressure hydropower plants and can be used with big discharges. At a speed of 214 rpm, a generator efficiency of more than 96% has been measured. The andritz hydro kaplan turbine is utilized on a low head application with up to 90 m and a unit output of up to more than 230 mw. Stype horizontal kaplan with better machine efficiency is achieved by relative motion of vanes and blades, which is called the double regulation horizontal kaplan or horizontal full kaplan. A wide variety of micro hydro kaplan turbine options are available to you, there are 411 suppliers who sells micro hydro kaplan turbine on, mainly located in asia. The verticalshaft kaplan turbine is suitable for new plants, and also makes a good replacement for existing francis and flow turbines, and water wheels. Having analysed the data for different types of turbines received from the manufacturers, the following formulae were derived. Levelland, tx 79336 806 8285550 get directions sun closed mon 8. Now he got his revolutionary idea of making the blades movable in the central hub, thereby combining an unlimited number of propeller runners with different. Very simple kaplan turbine design grant ingram 30th january 2007 nomenclature b blade height g gravitational acceleration h head k loss coe.
Classification of turbines the low head kaplan turbine at the jhang branch canal in punjab, pakistan is a micro hydro power turbine. Mini kaplan turbine test set description of mini kaplan turbine test set mini kaplan turbine test set is a self contained bench top set for studying the kaplan turbine characteristics under various flow rates and heads. This operates in an entirely closed conduit to tailrace. S type kaplan turbinechongqing hydropower equipment. The kaplan turbine this type of turbine evolved from the need to generate power from much lower pressure heads than are normally employed with the francis turbine. It consists of spiral casing, guide mechanism and draft tube of kaplan turbine runner are similar to those of francis turbine. Design and analysis of a kaplan turbine runner wheel research.
Kaplan turbine the kaplan turbine is a water turbine which has adjustable blades and is used for low heads and high discharges. The wellengineered hydraulic machine is manufac tured by hsi. It is an axialflow turbine, which means that the flow direction does not change as it crosses the rotor. It was developed in 19 by austrian professor viktor kaplan, who combined automatically adjusted propeller blades with automatically adjusted wicket gates to achieve efficiency over a wide range of flow and water level the kaplan turbine was an evolution of the francis turbine. The kaplan runner, similar to the francis runner, also should be.
The position of the shaft is only in the vertical direction. In the double kaplan regulation version of the turbine, runner and guide wheel regulation the range of flow rate regulation extends from 20% to 100% of the. Pdf design and analysis of a kaplan turbine runner wheel. Kaplan turbines are characterized by adjustable runner blades and wicket gates which enable them to deliver efficient output over a wide range of heads and discharge. Layout of kaplan turbine at jhang branch canal in punjab, pakistan. Modelling and analysis of a very low head kaplan turbine. Shaft power this is the mechanical, power output of the turbine shaft. To satisfy large power demands, very large volume flow rates need to be accommodated in the kaplan turbine, i. Kaplan turbine was developed by the austrian engineer victor kaplan towards the beginning of the 20th century. Typical crosssection of the saxo turbine water passage fig. The efficiency of the kaplan turbine is very high as compares with other types of hydraulic turbines. As a doubleregulated turbine it is therefore most suitable for low heads and large flows, but also for variable head and flow conditions.
Hydraulic turbines and hydroelectric power plants 1. Apart from the original version with vertical shaft and inlet spiral case the bulb turbine variant has. Due to its adjustable runner blades this turbine system is most adaptive. Further a manual separated operation of each guide vane servomotor will be. The top countries of suppliers are china, pakistan, from which the percentage of micro hydro kaplan turbine supply is. The first enclosed pivoting kaplan was installed at 1. Fluid mechanics and hydraulic machines venturimeter calculations. Kaplan turbine is employed, where a large quantity of water is available. Outlet draft tube outlet runner inlet runner outlet. Estimation of the water flow rate the water flow rate q can be estimated in different ways but a. Typical operation range of the saxo, kaplan and tubular turbines vious two decades see table 1. Improved governing of kaplan turbine hydropower plants.
Hydraulic turbines fundamental operating parameters classification impulse turbines pelton turbines reaction turbines radial flow. Pumps, turbines, and pipe networks, part 2 ch 11 young. It is ideally suited for sites with heads between 1. Design and analysis of a kaplan turbine runner wheel. Decision making on turbine types and capacities for runofriver hydroelectric power plants a case study on eglence1 hepp a thesis submitted to the graduate school of engineering and sciences of izmir institute of technology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for degree of master of science in energy engineering by aktan temiz. In such a kaplan turbine each blade can be swiveled about a post at right angles to the main turbine shaft, thus producing a variable pitch.
The efficiency of a turbine is highly influenced by its runner wheel and this work aims to study the design of a kaplan turbine runner wheel. Heliciel the site is dedicated to the design of propellers, so only to turbine design type bulbs, straflo, propeller or kaplan, using propellers turbines to turn the hydraulic power into mechanical power, will be detailed. Experiences show that investors of hydropower plants. The water at the inlet of the turbine possesses both kinetic energy as well as pressure energy for effective rotation the blades in a hydropower station. Verticalshaft kaplan turbines the verticalshaft kaplan turbine is suitable for new plants, and also makes a good replacement for existing francis and flow turbines, and water wheels. The control equipment and the outlet transformers are located in the generator forebay. Chaplin encyclopedia of life support systems eolss figure 4. Kaplan turbine has adjustable runner blades with less number of. This is because it will influence the secondary flow in the radial direction main dimension of a kaplan turbine n o q. Functions of spiral casing, guide vanes, runner blades, blade pitching and draft tube. The design is based on the suboptimal regulator problem solved by the use of. Very simple kaplan turbine design durham university. With help of 3d animation working and design aspects of a kaplan turbine is elaborated in this video lecture.1182 1387 1161 1101 561 607 279 1339 1486 1156 929 521 874 579 1435 354 1257 88 1459 843 95 1205 494 690 951 922 19 69 1085 1557 259 665 916 520 1445 1017 424 592 1264 1080 46