Curriculum pharmacognosy and phytochemistryi theory. The direct link to check gpat question paper 2021 along with the response sheet will be provided on this page after its. Quantitative microscopy, including lycopodium spore method as applied to drug evaluation and pollen grain analysis. Gpat question papers 2021 national testing agency is the authority competent to release the gpat 2021 question papers and response sheet tentatively in the fourth week of january. Determination of extractive values of crude drugs 9. Lycopodium spores are obtained from club moss, lycopodium clavatum linn. Fundamentals, applications and strategies explores a basic understanding of the anatomy and physiology of plants and animals, their constituents and metabolites. This book also provides an indepth look at natural sources from which medicines are derived, their pharmacological and chemical properties, safety aspects, and how they interact with humans. This book will provide readers with a concise overview of extraction, isolation, purification, qualitative and quantitative estimation methods of different natural drugs of classes like glycoside. Syllabus pharmacognosy and phytochemistryi theory b. Pharmacognosy and phytochemistry i practical amrita vishwa. Lycopodium spore method was performed on ingredients of shatavaryadi churna, an ayurvedic formulation used as immunomodulator. Modified lycopodium spore method is an important analytical technique for powdered drug, especially when other methods of evaluation of crude drugs fail as accurate measures of quality kumar and jha, 2011. Lycopodium spore method micrometers and measurement of microscopic characters pharmacognosy.
Determination of number of starch grains by lycopodium. Lycopodium homeopathic medicine properties and its. Several species of lycopodium or clubmoss belong in the category of nontimber forest products and are often gathered for a variety of traditional uses. The subject involves the fundamentals of pharmacognosy like scope, classification of crude drugs. To determine percentage purity by lycopodium spore method 10. Lycopodium is homosporous, therefore, spore germinates exosporically to produce gametophytic prothallus, which bears both male and female sex organs i. Lycopodium clavatum spore powder applications has many uses. Lycopodium clavatum is a sporebearing vascular plant, growing mainly prostrate along the ground with stems up to 1 m 39 in long. Lycopodium spores powder, spores powder, lycopodium powder manufacturer supplier in china, offering hot selling lycopodium spores powder, factory supply organic monk fruitluo han guo extract powder sweetener, high quality elderberry extract 5% anthocyanidin powder and so on. The subject involves the fundamentals of pharmacognosy like scope. Quantitative microscopy lycopodium spore method this is an important technique employed in identification of crude drug when chemical and physical methods are inapplicable.
Principle and procedure involved in biological test of the following. It is an important analytical technique for powder drugs, especially when chemical and another method of evaluation of crude drugs fail as an accurate measure of quality. Pharmacognosy and phytochemistry i practical is a course offered in the fourth semester of b. B pharmacy 2nd year, 4th semester name of the subject. Issn a better understanding of pharmacological activities. The gpat question paper along with the response sheet will be available in the form of pdf. The spores are obtained from the ripened strobiles by shaking the fruiting tops on cloths, and the extraneous matter is removed by sifting. General introduction, a history, definition and scope of pharmaco.
Lycopodium powder is a yellowtan dustlike powder, consisting of the dry spores of clubmoss plants, or various fern relatives. Determination of swelling index and foaming recommended books. Soon after liberation from the sporangium they are tetrahedral in shape. Quantitative microscopy of crude drugs including lycopodium spore method. Lycopodium spores and sst76 microspheres onto a silicon surface, lycopodium spores and sst76 microspheres onto a formica surface, and lycopodium sporesilicon and lycopodium sporeformica. Growth form, morphology, and sustainability of a nontimber forest product elizabeth a. Curriculum pharmacognosy and phytochemistryi practical b.
The spores of lycopodium are minute ranging in diameter from 0. The branches bearing strobili or spore cones turn erect. Using this, one can determine the proportions of the substances present by means of the microscope, using the lycopodium spore method. Wallis, 3 books finley ellingwood, 3 books friedrich a. Request pdf experimental pharmacognosy and phytochemistry contents chapter 1. Find out number of starch grains by lycopodium spore methods. This way lycopodium is similar to most of the ferns and equisetum. The germination of the spores may be immediate in some species e. Pharmacognosy and phytochemistry i practical amrita. Palynology methods and data geological society of america.
Principles and procedures of microtomy and advanced histological techniques as applied to pharmacognosy. Lycopodium consists of the spores of the common clubmoss, lycopodium clavatum, linne n. The total incoming velocities for the silicon and formica surfaces were close but not identical. Determination of moisture content of crude drugs 10. Some best books for gpat preparation the pearson guide to gpat and other entrance examination in pharmacy. Conservation of medicinal plants exsitu and insitu cultivation, biodiversity loss, methods of cultivation, factors involved in cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants with special reference to drug improvement, i. Pharmacognosy and phytochemistry i practical is a course offered in the fourth. Shipping and returns lycopodium clavatum spore powder.
The clubmoss, with its long creeping stems and ascending branches covered with narrow mosslike leaves, is distributed over great britain and europe generally. Lycopodium spore impacts onto surfaces sciencedirect. Quantitative microscopy of crude drugs including lycopodium spore method, leafconstants. Contents of the topics learning objectives teaching guidelines methodology timehrs 1.
The name lycopodium comes from the greek language and is composed by lico meaning wolf and podio meaning foot and it is due to the similarity of the plant to the shape of a wolfs foot. Pharmacognosy and phytochemistryi theory subject code. Reprint, usual signs of use and age, text in good condition. Lycopodium spores are very characteristic in shape and appearance and exceptionally uniform in size 25 mm. Gpat 2020 exam answer keys, cutoff, result, counselling. Validated modified lycopodium spore method development for. It produces fruiting branches covered with small scaly leaves and resembling a slender. The results show that surface roughness of both the microparticleand the substrate surfaces has dramatic e. Pharmacognostical characterization of an antidiabetic polyherbal. Standardization of an ayurvedic powdered formulation by. Determination of number of starch grains by lycopodium spore method. Experimental pharmacognosy and phytochemistry studera press. Lycopodium spore method, stomatal number, stomatal index, palisade ratio, veinislet number, and veintermination number. In the present studies, oblique impact experiments were conducted with lycopodium spore impacts onto silicon and commercial formica surfaces.
Pharmacy syllabus w ith effect from 2012 onwards unit4 cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants. Role of pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely, ayurveda, unani, siddha, homeopathy and chinese systems of medicine. Determination of percentage purity of crude drugs by using lycopodium spore method. The japanese journal of pharmacognosy, 1949, the japanese journal of pharmacognosy, volume 3, numbers 34. Natural drugs and derived products are gaining worldwide popularity due to numerous advantages including easy availability, possible source of lead molecules, synergism with modern drugs and their significant research opportunities.
Determination of number of starch grains by lycopodium spore method 7. Of fo particles w weight of lycopodium spores m weight of sample p pure foreign organic matter present in sample 14 15. Thus, the authors have designed this book to cover all important and necessary information of experimentations in pharmacognosy and phytochemistry. Addition of marker pollen lycopodium spore tablets from batch number 938934 with an average 10, 680 lycopodium spores per tablet were dissolved in beakers with 10ml of distilled water by heating on. G guibourt, 7 books george edward trease, 4 books henry kraemer, 4 books pietro andrea mattioli, 3 books t. Pharm program at school of pharmacy, health sciences campus, amrita vishwa vidyapeetham. The architecture of the outer layer is highly variable. They are very light possessing thin exine formed of concentric lamellae, and a. Experimental pharmacognosy and phytochemistry request pdf. The spores are yellow in colour, spheroidol, tetrahedral in shape with reticulate surface. Modified lycopodium spore method can fill this gap, and there is a need of the method to support the chemical method of standardisation. Demonstration by teacher and practical performance by student. When it is mixed with air, the spores formed are highly flammable and are used to create flashes or flames as theatrical special effects. Lycopodium spore method was performed on ingredients of shatavaryadi churna, an ayurvedic.409 132 964 98 1114 1449 1151 625 590 113 228 419 468 1215 1341 996 428 221 209 493 925 236 1379 183 1238 751 345 68 1136 434 910